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As with lithium, this is a supply chain that is having to adapt in super fast time to a new source of demand. To be clear, they weren’t the first to challenge the boundaries of the mind. I’ve always thought the notion of ownership is under-theorized in epistemology. If extended knowledge is defined as a knowledge state that is partly constituted by entities that reach beyond the skull, are there any cases of extended knowledge that also meet Adams and Aizawa’s cognition requirement? The smartphone is often used as an example of cognitive extension. If I don’t know how to perform CPR, I can’t be held responsible for not administering it to a stranger in need. In particular, Smart focuses on our relationship to the internet and considers whether our interaction with it, and with future versions of it, meet the criteria for extension.

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Although the bar for anti-luck extended knowledge is quite low, Pritchard argues that there are reasons for demanding more of epistemic agents. The professor is surprised by Otis’ grade given that she has rarely seen him or his homework. Carter and Kallestrup argue nd;r these conditions are not sufficient and that an additional condition needs to be met. She also considers ways in which virtue-responsibilism and extended cognition might fruitfully be combined.

NDEP Plc and its subsidiaries strongly believe in the use, development and promotion of local content and has made this philosophy a major component of its oil and gas production operations. The “trust and glue condition” and the notion of cognitive integration are critiqued or developed in various articles, and this offers the reader a comprehensive picture of the various counterexamples to the conditions and permutations the conditions have undergone in the literature.

Therefore, demanding that extended knowledge exhibit epistemic virtues will often be beneficial. I suppose we could say that corresponding to we-intentions there exists we-knowledge.

Since the problem of circularity remains a problem for most epistemological theories, it is not clear that extended epistemology is any worse off in this respect. Chinese magnet producers are ramping up capacity to feed the ambitious electric vehicle targets of global automotive manufacturers.

Boom, bust and boom again for rare earths?

This access internalism is incompatible with vehicle externalism. The professor is not persuaded by Clark and Chalmers’ argument and fails the student.

According to this thesis, it is not just processes but mental states themselves that can be extended. In short, contextualism might provide a reply to Aizawa here. Malden, MA and Oxford: Their thoughtful analysis of what actually happens when we use the GPS function on our phone is a welcome addition to the literature.

In his “Emerging Digital Technologies: One of the main differences between virtue-responsibilism and virtue-reliabilism is the way that they understand the virtues.

Boom, bust and boom again for rare earths? | Reuters

They do so by considering a number of counterexamples to extended knowledge and argue that the only way to overcome these counterexamples is to acknowledge that reflection is needed for knowledge. Cognitive scaffolds are often helpful as they decrease cognitive load, but they leave us epistemically vulnerable. Knowledge attributions are credit attributions because we credit the person with truly believing that p because they have exercised their cognitive abilities in the right way.

Nor can Otto endorse his notebook reliably by relying on his biological memory because his biological memory dnpr, by stipulation, unreliable. And because the focus iew almost exclusively on Clark and Chalmers’ bdpr, readers might also wonder what the prospects are for an extended epistemology if one adopted an approach that focuses more on complementarity rather than parity e.

Menary argues that the development of these tools led humans to develop “enculturated” cognitive mechanisms in ontogeny. However, Otto can’t appeal to the notebook to endorse the reliability of the notebook as this would be circular. Smithies’ access internalism is independently established via a Moorean argument. Battaly’s insightful contribution explores the question of whether extended cognition might be compatible with virtue-responsibilism. However, she raises a number of issues that point to an incompatibility.

In cases of outright extension, ksw between the environment and the agent is reliable in both directions. A lack of knowledge is often exculpatory. As these large Chinese producer and user groups lock up future sourcing, the supply of material for the spot market is diminishing, squeezing spot prices higher.

Neodymium (Nd) & Praseodymium (Pr) Primer

Adams argues that there is at least one potential case, viz. They offer an endorsement condition:. This is a surprising conclusion from someone who has diligently policed the boundaries of the mind for many years. For this reason, I find Wheeler’s suggestion very compelling.